Scroll down this page for a list of Greek Philosophers and Christian Theologians
listed by periods. Many Christian, Jewish, Islamic, and world events are listed next
to these Theologians and Philosophers to help contextualize their place in history.
The menu links will quickly scroll to periods. The "top" link by each period
will return you to the top of this page. This page is under constant development

Individuals by Periods
My Special Dedications (Top Pages)
Antiquity: B.C. | Apostolic Age | Apostles to Nicea | Nicea to Fall of Rome |
Medieval: Early Medieval | Schoolastics | Renaissance |
Early Modern: Reformation | Enlightenment | Modern: | Post-Modern:

Personal Favorites
(under development)
my page for Augustine | My page for Barth | My Page for Bonhoeffer | My page for H. Richard Niebuhr | study on Christ & Culture | list of theologian pages formatted by Richard's Typologies

Top Links
Links of Interest (links to other sites) | Trends and Developments
Centropian Enterprises Religious Studies Directory Entrance

Links to Particular Theologicans by Time Period

Antiquity (top)

1700 - 1275 Sojourn in Egypt
1275-1235 Exodus and Wilderness
1235- 1050 Occupation/the Judges
(1050 BC - 1007 BC?) Saul 1st King
(ap. 1005 - 967?) David Rules United Kingdom
(ap. 971-922?) Solomon Rules United Kingdom
922 BC - Kingdom Divides into Judah and Israel
(ap.860) Elish denoused king Ahab
Classical Antiquity B.C. (top)
(*Classical Antiquity thought to cover period from Homer to dissolution of classical culture at the close of Late Antiquity (AD 300-600), blending into the Early Middle Ages (AD 500-1000))[1]

Archaic period of Classical Antiquity
My Page for Western Philosophy of Antiquity
Homer (8th Century BC?) My Page for Homer 753 BC - Founding of Rome (traditional date)
(ap. 750) Amos writes
722 Northern Israel Falls
(ap. 600) Jeremiah writes

Pre-Socratic philosophy/Jewish Exile & 2nd Temple
My Page for Pre-Socratic Philosophy

Pythagoras (582-496 BC) My Page for Pythagoras

587 Southern Judah Falls
587-539 BC - Jewish Exile
539 BC End of Babylonian Empire
539-332 Persian Period
515 BC Dedication of 2nd Temple
509 BC - Expulsion of the last King of Rome, founding of Roman Republic (traditional date)

Classical Greek/Judaism
My Page for Classic Greek Philosophers
Socrates (470 – 399 BCE): My Page for Socrates
Plato (427-347 BC): My Page for Plato
Aristotle (384-322 BC)My Page for Aristotle


(around 400 BC) Scholars denote "Judaism" with Ezra
(356 BC — 323 BC) Alexander the Great
My Page for Hellenistic Philosophy
332 BC Alexander the Great captures Jerusalem
168 Antiochus Epiphanes errect statue of Zeus in Jerusalem
165-63 BC Macabean Period
69 Pompey arrives
Jewish Philosophy/Philo

Hillel the Elder
(20 BC - 50 AD) Philo
Hillel the Elder copy
(20 BC - 50 AD) Philo copy

Apostolic Age (30-100 AD) (top)
Stephen | James, son of Zebedee (? - ca. 44) | James, brother of Jesus (? - 62) | The Apostle Paul (? - 65) | The Apostle Peter (? - 65) | 66-73 First Jewish-Roman War
70 Destruction of Temple

From the Apostles to the Council of Nicaea (100-325) (top)
The Apostolic Fathers:
Clement of Rome (? - ca. 98) | Ignatius of Antioch (? - ca. 98/110) | Polycarp (ca. 70 - ca.155/167) | Didache | Epistle of Barnabas | Shepherd of Hermas |
The Apologists:
Justin Martyr (ca. 114 – ca. 165)
Tertullian (ca. 155–230) my page for Tertullian
Tatian (110-180)
Other writers:
Irenaeus (ca. 130-202) |
Marcion (ca. 110-160): My Page for Marcion |
Clement of Alexandria(?-211/216) my page for Clement |
Origen (ca. 182 – ca. 251)
Cyprian (ca. 200-258) |
96–180: Five Good Emperors of Rome
132–135: Bar Kokhba's revolt
144: Marcion,

235-284: Crisis of the Third Century
258: Valerian's Massacre of Christians
308: Constantine I is declared Caesar
313: Edict of Milan, ending all persecution of Christians
318: Constantine is converted in Byzantium, and the Christian Church is institutionalised

From the Council of Nicaea to the Fall of the Roman Empire (325-590) (top)

Arius (AD 256 - 336)and Arianism | Athanasius (298–373 A.D.) | Constantine (272–337) | Eusebius of Caesarea (265-339)|
Basil the Great (330-379) | Gregory of Nazianzus (329-389)| Gregory of Nyssa (335-394) | Ambrose of Milan (340-397) | Jerome (340-420) | John Chrysostom (347 - 407)|
Augustine (354-430 AD) my page for Augustine
Pelagius (c.354 - c.420/440) Pelagius
Cyril of Alexandria (376–444) |
Leo the Great (440-461)|
Nestorius (386-481) and Nestorianism: My page for Nestorius
--First Council of Nicaea (325) Nicene Creed (325 1st)--
Constantinople dedicated as the second capital of the Roman Empire in 330
378–395: Theodosius I, Roman emperor, bans pagan worship, Christianity is made the official religion of the Empire
--First Council of Constantinople (381)--
420 Augustine's City of God
455, the Vandals took Rome
494 - Pope Gelasius I delineates the relationship between church and state.
bubonic plague in A.D. 541–542.
571 Birth of Muhammad, prophet of Islam, (possibly)

Medieval (top)
The Medieval Church and Scholasticism (590-1517)
Boethius (AD 480 - 524 or 525)|
Gregory the Great (540-604)|

Schoolastics: (top)
Anselm of Cantebury(1033-1109)Anselm
Abelard (1079 – 1142) my page for Abelard
Peter Lombard (c1100-1160)(s?) |
Maimonides (1135–1204) (s?)my page for Maimonides
Albert the Great (c1206-1280) (s?) |
Thomas of Aquinas (1225 – 1274) my page for T of A
John Duns Scotus (1266-1308) (?) |
William of Ockham (c. 1288 – 1348)
Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–1153)
Later anti-schoolastics:
Renι Descartes (1596 – 1650) |
Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) |
Robert Boyle (1627-1691) |
Galileo Galilei (1564–1642)

John Wycliffe(1324-1384) |
John Huss (1369-1415)|
Francis of Assisi (1181-1226)
Renaissance philosophy (aprox 1450- 1517) (some include Reformation in Renaissance period)(top)
Dante Alighieri (c. 1265 – 1321)
Petrarch (1304 – 1374)
Giovanni Boccaccio (1313 – 1375)
Humanism Secularism Heliocentrism
610-632 alledged dates of Koran writing
627 The Roman-Persian Wars end.
Arab and Berber Muslims conquer Iberian peninsula
An account of Buddha's life is translated into Greek by St. John of Damascus, and circulated to Christians as the story of Barlaam and Josaphat.
863-879 - Schism between eastern & western churches
10th century: Byzantine empire reaches military and economic height 11th
Great schism 1054
1071, Defeat of the Byzantine Empire/ Battle of Manzikert,
Crusades (1095- )
1099, First Crusade captures Jerusalem
c.1119, Foundation of the Knights Templar
1145–1148, The Second Crusade is launched
1189–1192, The Third crusade
Renaissance of the 12th century in Europe.
Mongols under Genghis Khan conquer and rule over most of Asia and Eastern Europe by establishing Mongol Empire
1204 - Fourth Crusade
5th-8th crusades of western European kingdoms against Islam
First European universities founded
The Great Famine of 1315-1317 kills millions in Europe
The Hundred Years' War
Black Death kills about one third of European population (1347 - 1351)
The Great Schism of the West begins in 1378,
Buddha (under the name Josaphat) made a Catholic saint.
Peasants' Revolt in England
Beginning of the Renaissance in Italy
1429: Joan of Arc ends the Siege of Orlιans and turns the tide of the Hundred Years' War.
1453: Fall of Constantinople/end of the Byzantine Empire.
1455-85: Wars of the Roses - English civil war
1474-77: Burgundy Wars between
1481: Spanish Inquisition begins.
1493: Columbus founds Spain's 1st New World colony on Hispaniola.

Early Modern
The Reformation (1517-1648) (top)
Martin Luther (1483–1546) my page for Martin Luther
Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536)
Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (1484–1531)
Menno Simons (1496-1561)
John Calvin (1509–1564) my page for John Calvin

Thomas Cranmer (1489–1556)
Philipp Melanchthon (1497-1560)
Andreas Rudolph Bodenstein von Karlstadt (1486-1541),
Radical Reformers / Anabaptists
Thomas Muentzer (or Mόntzer, Mόnzer) (1489 or 1490–1525)
Johann Eck (1486 – 1543)
Johann Tetzel (1465-1519)
Leo X,(1475 – 1521)
Ignatius of Loyola (1491 – 1556)
Teresa of Avila (1515 - 1582)
John of the Cross (1542 – 1591)
John Huss (c. 1369 - 1415)
William Tyndale (and the English Bible)(circa 1494 - October 6, 1536)

Theodore Beza (Theodore de Beze or de Besze) (1519 - 1605)
John Knox (1505, 1513 or 1514 – 1572)
James (Jacob) Arminius (1560-1609)
Jakob Boehme (1575-1624)
Westminster Confession (1646) John Owen (1616–1683)
Jesuits The Roman Catholic Response: Catholic reformation
Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) my page for Pascal
95 Theses (1517)
1524-25: Peasants' War in the Holy Roman Empire.
1527: Sack of Rome is considered the end of the Italian Renaissance.
1531-32: The Church of England breaks away from the Roman Catholic Church and recognizes King Henry VIII as the head of the Church.
Council of Trent (1545-1563)
Heidelberg Catechism (1563)
Thirty-nine Articles (1563)
1558-1603: The Elizabethan era is considered the height of the English Renaissance.
1611: The King James Version of the Bible is completed.

17th-century philosophy

The Enlightenment Church (1648 - 1789) (top)
18th Century Age of Enlightenment
Hegel (1770-1831)
Kant (1724 – 1804),
Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) George Whitefield Howell Harris John Wesley (1703-1791) Charles Wesley (1707-1788) George Fox (1624-1691) Augustus Toplady
1692: Salem witch trials in Massachusetts.
1775-1783: American Revolutionary War
1789: George Washington elected President of the United States. Serves until 1797.
1789-99: The French Revolution
Great awakenings Methodism Quakers Unitarianism

Modern (top)
The Modern Church (1798-1970)
19th Century Romanticism

F. D. E. Schleiermacher (1768-1834)Schleiermacher

John Nelson Darby (1800-1882)
John Henry Newman (1801-1890)
Charles Finney (1792–1875)
C.H. Spurgeon (1834-1892) |
D. L. Moody (1837-1899)|
Johann Christoph Blumhardt (1805-1880) and Christoph Friedrich Blumhardt (1842-1919)
Karl Barth (1886-1968) My page for Barth
Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-1945) My Page for Bonhoeffer
Rudolph Bultmann (1884-1976)
Reinhold Niebuhr (1892-1971)
H. Richard Niebuhr (1894-1962): My page for H. Richard Niebuhr | study on Christ & Culture | list of theologian pages formatted by Richard's Typologies
Leo Tolstoy (1828 – 1910) my page for Tolstoy
Jung (1875-1961) My Page for Jung
Benjamin B. Warfield (1851-1921)
Paul Tillich (1886-1965)
Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855)My Page for Kierkegaard
Albrecht Ritschl (1822-1889)
Adolf von Harnack (1851-1930)
Walter Rauschenbusch (1861-1918)
Ernst Troeltsch (1865-1923)
Rudolph Otto (1869-1937)
Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965)
J. Gresham Machen (1881-1936)
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955)
Emil Brunner (1889-1966)
Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968)

Charles Hartshorne (1897-2000)
Bernard Lonergan (1904-1984)
Karl Rahner (1904-1984)
Hans Urs von Balthasar (1905-1988)
Lesslie Newbigin (1909-1998)
Jacques Ellul (1912-1994)
Paul Ramsey (1913-1988)
T. F. Torrance (1913- )
Edward Schillebeeckx (1914- )
Karol Wojtyla (1920-2005) [Pope John Paul II]
Alexander Schmemann (1921-1983)
Hans Frei (1922-1988)
John Cobb (1925- )
Jόrgen Moltmann (1926- )
Joseph Ratzinger (1927- ) [Pope Benedict XVI]
John Howard Yoder (1927-1997)
Wolfhart Pannenberg (1928- )
Eberhard Jungel (1934- )
Rosemary Radford Ruether (1936- )
Robert W. Jenson (
Stanley Hauerwas (1940- )
Rowan Williams (1950-
1801: Great Britain and Ireland merge to form the UK
1806: Holy Roman Empire dissolved by Treaty of Lunιville.
1812-15: War of 1812 between the U.S. and Great Britain
1815 Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo ends Napoleonic Wars
1834: Spanish Inquisition officially ends.
1837-1901: Victorian era.
1846-48: The Mexican-American War
1846-47: Mormon migration to Utah.
1848: The Communist Manifesto published.
1848: Revolutions of 1848 in Europe
1854-56: Crimean War
1857-58: Indian rebellion of 1857
1859: The Origin of Species published.
1861-65: American Civil War
1871-1914: Second Industrial Revolution
1870s-90s: Long Depression in W. Europe and N. America
1875-1900: 26 million Indians perished in India from famine
1876-1914: Gilded Age: The massive expansion in population, territory, industry and wealth in the U.S.
1896: Olympic games revived in Athens.
1898: The United States the Spanish-American War.
1914-1918 WWI
Russian Revolution of 1917
1929 Start of Great Depression
The rise of dictatorships
1939-1945 WWII
Pacific Theater of Operations
The Holocaust
The Nuclear Age begins
The Post-War World
Israel and Palestine
The end of empire
Main article: New Imperialism
An "Iron Curtain" forms
Main article: Cold War
Korean War, Vietnam War, and Cuban Missile Crisis
Space Race
The end of the Cold War
Dawn of the Information Age
European Union
Process theology
Liberation theology
First Vatican Council (1869-1870)
Second Vatican Council (1962-1965)
Charismatic or Pentecostalism

The Post-modern Church (1970 - present) (top)

Liberal postmodern theologians include: Mark C. Taylor, Thomas J. J. Altizer, Robert P. Scharlemann, Charles Winquist, David Ray Griffin, Don Cupitt Conservative postmodern theologians include: George Lindbeck, John Milbank, Jean-Luc Marion, Michel de Certeau
Relativism Open Theism New Perspective on Paul House Church The Emerging Church
Mark C. Taylor, Walt Lowe, Robert Scharlemann, Jean-Luc Marion, Kevin Hart, Carl Raschke, John Caputo, Edith Wyschogrod, Charles Winquist, and Graham Ward
Links of interest (top)
Where to do research? | Religion-Online | Particular Theologians' Works and Discussions of Interest to Christian Theology | Christian Authors Database: Modern Non-Evangelicals | People of Ideas during THE FIRST HALF OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY | Theologians (born 1866-1900)at Wabash Center | The Liberal Protestant Tradition in America|

Trends and Developments

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Early Writers


Thomas of Aquinas


Martin Luther

John Calvin

Blaise Pascal

17th Century



Johnathan Edwards

John Wesley

The Modern Church (1798-1970)

Karl Barth

Dietrich Bonhoeffer

Reinhold Niebuhr

H. Richard Niebuhr

John Howard Yoder


[1] Wikipedia entry on classical antiquity online casino

Barbara Rossing 1